A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y| Z

– A –

ABACCA – A plant (Musa textilis) grown in The Philippines that produces the fiber used in the production of sisal and sinamay

ABRAHAM LINCOLNAbraham Lincoln’s hat was a silk stovepipe (top hat), which was made for him by George Hall of Springfield, Illinois. He wore it because of the president’s lack of interest in his appearance!

AGAL (AH GAUL) – The thick cords of wool which hold the KAFFIYEH, the clothe headdress of the desert people, in place

ALPINE – Sport hat of soft felt or tweed. The crown slants upward to a lengthwise crease. The narrow brim is rolled up at the back and turned down in front. Brush or feather trim in the headband. Adapted from hats worn by people in the Swiss Alps. Also TYROLEAN HAT

AMMANA – Large wound turban worn by Muslims

ANADEM – A wreath or garland for the head

ANNIE HALL (late 1970s) – In the movie “Annie Hall”, the actress Diane Keaton popularized a fashion consisting of a drooping hat, long vest, wide tie, baggy pants and a man’s shirt

ARCTIC CAP – Fabric crown insulated with goose down. Mouton lamb storm flaps turn down to protect neck, ears and forehead

ATEF – Illustration of the Egyptian Helmet Crown, from the portrait bust of Queen Nofretete, Dynasty XVII, c.1372

ATTIFET (mid 16th century) – French headdress consisting of hair rolled over pads. Ladies’ hat which came to a point just above the forehead and had a veil at the back

AUTOMOBILE BONNET (early 20th century) – Large brimmed hat worn with a long chiffon, net or tulle scarf that enveloped the face and hat and tied under the chin. Worn to protect the wearer while riding in the new open automobiles over dusty roads

– B –

BABUSHKA (BAH BOOSH KA) – Russian word for grandmother; a triangular shaped head scarf worn over the head and tied under the chin

BABY STUART CAP – Close fitting, shirred lace infant’s cap. From the 17th century portrait of the infant Stuart prince by Van Dyck

BALMORAL (BAL MOR AL) – The Scotch BLUEBONNET of the highlanders. Blue woolen beret cap with top projecting over a tartan band of Stuart colors, checkered design. In 1850, Queen Victoria and her Prince Consort made the Aberdeenshire, Scotland castle of Balmoral their summer residence. The Queen dressed the prince in the Highland costume and created a fashion

BANDEAU – A headband of material, structured or unstructured

BANDINO HAT – (1930s) Woman’s large brimmed hat

BARBE (14th to 16th century) – A long piece of vertically pleated linen, worn under the chin and covering the chest. With a black hood and long black veil. The headdress of widows and mourners

BARBETTE (late 12th, 13th and early 14th century) – Linen chin band, pinned in position on top of the head. Illustration shows the FILLET, a stiffened band of linen, wound over the BARBETTE covered with a small veil

BARRET – Wide, flat cap worn during the Middle Ages by priests. Barret of velvet with embroidery and feathers shown in the 15th and 16th century paintings by Holbein

BASHLYK (ANCIENT) – A traditional Turkish and Cossack cone-shaped headdress hood, usually made of felt, wool or leather

BASQUE BERET (BASK BA RAY) – Flat, round, woolen fabric cap worn by Basque peasants. Usually woven in one piece

BAVOLET (BA VO LAY) – A cap worn by French peasant women. A 19th century style called the CURTAIN BONNET had a back ruffle, called a bavolet, that shaded the neck. In the 16th century, the BAVOLETTE was a piece of fabric that was folded and attached to the cap, with the folds projecting over the forehead and hanging down in the back

BEANIE (20th century, American) – A small round skull cap, usually made of wool

BEARSKIN – A large furry high crowned hat, which is part of a uniform worn by the Coldstream Guards

BEAVER – An expensive felt hat made from felted beaver fur

BEAVER – A hat of various crown and brim shapes. Originally, in the 14th century, made of beaver skin. In the 16th century, made from felted beaver fur. In the 17th century, the tall top hat, made of silk in imitation of beaver

BEEFEATER – The traditional headwear of the Yeomen warders in England

BEEHIVE – High, tapered crown, Shaped like a beehive. Hat usually has a narrow brim

BELLBOY OR BELLHOP – A small, stiff cap in pillbox shape, usually trimmed with braid or buttons, sometimes with a chin strap. Copy of a cap worn by hotel bellboys

BERET – Cap made from felt, felted jersey or fabric with soft, wide, circular crown

BERET (BA RAY) – A cap with a round flat crown of varying widths. Made of felt, wool or other fabric. Forms of the beret have been found since ancient times. In the 15th century, HALO BERET. Also BASQUE BERET, PLUMED BERET, TAM O’SHANTER, PANCAKE BERET, MONTGOMERY BERET

BERRETINO (BER RET TEE NO) – Square, scarlet skullcap with corners pinched in. As worn by cardinals of the Catholic Church. See BIRETTA

BEST STUFF – A 19th century term for rabbit fur, including the backs and the best parts of the sides mixed together

BETHLEHEM HEADDRESS – The Bethlehem headdress, was a flat conical cap, whose front is covered with rows of coins, beads and coral and was worn by married women of three neighboring villages, Bethlehem, Beit Jala and Beit Sahur

BIBI BONNET (BEE BEE BUNNEH) – Appeared around 1830s as a smaller version of the POKE BONNET. At first it was fitted close to the sides of the head, later the brim flared upward and forward in front. In the late 19th century, any small fanciful and elegant hat was called BIBI. In 1956, Sally Victor came out with a BIBI style

BICORN OR BICORNE (BY CORN) – A variation of the cocked hat, appearing around 1790 and supplanting the TRICORNE. The brim of the BICORNE is folded up in front and back. The BICORNE became the military dress hat of the British, American and French. The WELLINFTON was a version that had tassels. The NAPOLEON hat was a BICORNE with a tricolor cockade

BICORNE OR BICORN – Hat of the late 18th and early 19th century, wide brims were folded up to form two points

BIGGIN – Practical tightfitting linen cap which often tied under the chin

BIGGIN (BIG IN) (DER. FR. BEGUINE, A CAP WORN BY NUNS) – A coif like cap, with ties under the chin, 16th century and 17th century

BIRCAGE – Hat of stiffened veiling, shaped like a birdcage

BIRETTA – Square cap worn by clergy the crown has three or four projections

BIRETTA (BI RET AH) – Since the 17th century, a square cap with three or four upright projections, radiating from the center crown. Worn by Roman Catholic clergy. Developed, since the 13th century, out of a cap formed like the modern beret. Also BERRETTA, BIRRETTA, BIRETUM, BARRET

BLOCK – A wooden form used as a mould to shape, by hand a brim or crown

BLOCKING – The term used to describe the action of molding a hat shape

BLUEBONNET – Broad, slat cap of dark blue wool, woven in one piece. Narrow tartan headband. Colored tuft on top. Also BALMORAL

BOATER – Flat-topped hat with small flat brim. traditionally, made of stiffened straw braid

BOATER (BRITISH TERM) – Straw hat with a shallow flat crown and brim, typically with a ribbon around the crown, which is often in colours representing a school, rowing crew or similar institution

BONGRACE (16th and 17th centuries) – Oblong shaped, stiff material which dips over the forehead and drapes in back, worn over a coif

BONNET – Women’s or girl’s head-dress, with deep brim and ribbons to tie under the chin

BONNET – A brimless Scotch cap of seamless woolen fabric orbonnet a cloth or straw hat tied under the chin and worn by women and children

BONNET ROUGE – Red cap worn during the French Revolution as a symbol of liberty

BOUDOIR CAP (BOO DWAR) – Softly shirred cap with a lace ruffle. In the 19th and 20th centuries, a cap worn to cover undressed women’s hair

BOURRELET – Originally a twisted scarf or turban worn on the helmet. A 15th century term for the padded roll worn by both men and women as a base for a headdress

BOWLER – Oval hat with round, rigid crown and a small, shaped, curved brim. Also known as a derby, because the style was made popular by the Earl of Derby in 19th century England

BOWLER (BOLE ER) – In 1850, William Bowler made a hard felt hat, designed by the London hatter Lock for Sir William Coke. It was created to protect the head while riding horseback. The hat has a low melon

BRETON – Women’s hat with domed crown and brim turned-up all around

BRETON SAILOR – (bret on) (French, bretonh) Woman’s hat with a brim that turns up evenly all around

BRIDAL VEIL – White or ivory veil worn during wedding ceremony

BRIM – Projecting edge of a hat

BROADBRIM – Term is nickname for quaker, friend. See QUAKER HAT.


BUCKRAM – Stiff netting used to make hats. May be blocked or sewn. Once used by milliners to make blocks for limited use

BULBOUS (16th century, German), BALZO, REBALZO (16th century Italian) – A large, dome shaped cap. This hat completely covered the hair

BUMPER BRIM – Hat with a tubular shaped brim. Size of brim and crown varies. See KRIZIA CAP for 1970s version

BUMPING – Term used for the process of final felting of a hood, further compressing and felting of hoods done in a bumping machine

BUSBY (BUZ BI) – A tall, cylindrical fur cap with regimental colored bag like ornament hanging form the top, over the right side. Brush on top of center front. Originally the 15th century cavalry uniform of Hungarian Hussars.

BUTTERFLY HEADDRESS (15th century) – Variation of the HENNIN. Box like cap, wired and draped with sheer veiling so that it stands out like butterfly wings

BYCOCKET, BYCOKET (BY COCK ET) – High crowned hat with wide brim that is peaked in front and turned up in back. Middle Ages, 16th century, Italian students in the 20th century

– C –

CABAS (KAH BAS) – Version of PHRYGIAN BONNET brought out by Sally Victor in 1956

CABRIOLET BONNET (KAB REE O LEH, KAB REE AH LEH) – Large 19th century bonnet with brim, suggesting shape of two wheeled carriage top

CALASH, CALECHE (KA LASH) – Large folding hood supported by hoops, designed to be raised or lowered over the exaggerated 18th century hair styles and MOBS. Named after folding top of calash or light carriage. Also THERESE, GAUZIER, BASHFUL BONNET

CALOT, CALOTTE (KA LOT) – Small, round skullcap. Ancient Greek origin. In medieval times, worn under hood or crown. In the 17th century, worn under wig or as night cap over shaved head. Also ZUCCHETTO, YARMULKE, SCHOOLBOY’S BEANIE or DINK

CALOTTE – A close-fitting skull cap as worn by the Roman Catholic Clergy

CALPAC (KAL PAC) – Large, black cap of felt or sheepskin worn by men in Turkey. Also SHAPKA, COSSACK CAP

CAMPAIGN HAT – Broad brimmed felt army hat with four dents in top of crown, World War I

CAMURO (CAH MOW RO) – Ermine trimmed, red velvet cap, larger than a skullcap, formerly worn by the Pope of Roman Catholic Church

CANADIAN MOUNTIE’S STETSON – Official head-dress of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police


CANOTIER (KAN O TYAY) – French version of the straw sailor hat, with straight brim, flat crown. Also BOATER

CAP – A hat with a small brim at the front

CAP – Of ancient origin. Snug fitting head covering, usually with partial brim or visor. Many variations during Middle Ages for men, women and children. Modern versions as BASEBALL, HUNTING, JOCKEY, SPORTS, BOY’S ENGINEER, ARMY FORAGE, etc.

CAPE HAT – Half hat made by attaching fabric or felt to a bicycle clip. Roughly shaped crown and brim of felt or straw, to be blocked into hat shape

CAPELINE – Roughly shaped crown and brim of felt or straw, to be blocked into hat shape

CAPELINE (CAP E LIN) – Hat with small round crown and a wide, floppy brim

CAPOTE (KA POTE) – Close fitting bonnet with rigid brim, either of straw or boned into shape. Soft, shirred crown, ribbon bows tied under the chin, Victorian 19th century with deep ruffle in back. Also POKE BONNET, FANCHON, SCUTTLE BONNET, SUN BONNET

CAPUCHE (KA POOSH) – Long, pointed hood worn by the Capuchin monks

CAPUCHON (KAP YOO CHON) – Medieval pointed hooded cape, the top stiffened down the center. Developed into the CHAPERON

CAPULET (KAP YOO LET) (FR. CA POO LAY) – Adaptation of Juliet cap, worn on back of head. Juliet Capulet, heroine of Shakespeare’s play “Romeo and Juliet”

CARCANET – Jeweled necklace, collar or headband

CARDINAL’S HAT (from the 13th century) – Red hat with short, rounded crown and broad flat brim. Rank was designated by the number of tassels which terminated the cords

CARROTING – Preliminary treatment of wool or fur with acids, to curl the hairs. Produces a reddish-yellow colour which is the origin of the name

CARTWHEEL – Woman’s hat with very wide, stiff brim and low crown. Usually of straw

CASQUE (KASK) – French for helmet. A helmet shaped hat. Illustration is a 1980s version of the casque, covered with feather pads

CASTOR HAT (KAS TER) – From French word for beaver or rabbit

CATER CAP (KAY TER) (17th and 19th centuries) – Term for square, university cap. Also MORTARBOARD

CATHERINETTE – French term for milliners. Named after Saint Catherine, the patron saint of milliners. The 27th of November is St Catherine’s Day

CAUBEEN (CAW BEEN) – Irish slang term for an old and shabby hat

CAUL – Historical term for a net or close-fitting indoor head-dress or the plain back part of the same

CAUL – An Elizabethan snood made of netting or fabric

CAUL (KOL) (14th, 15th and 16th centuries) – Headdress of hair arranged at each side of the head in silken cases. Arrangement covered with net of silver or gold cord, inter spaced with jewels and beads. Held in place by a golden headband or crown fitted over the upper edge of the caul. Also GOLDEN NET CAUL, RETICULATED HEADDRESS, CRESPINE, CRESTINE, CRESPINETTE

CAVALIER HAT – A wide-brimmed, plumed hat worn by cavaliers in the 17th century. The right side of the brim was pinned up to the crown, so that the wearer’s sword arm could move freely above the shoulder

CAVALIER HAT, CHEVALIERS (17th century) – Wide brimmed hat, velvet or beaver, trimmed with ostrich plumes on the left side or back. Usually one side of the brim is cocked or rolled. Seen in portraits of aristocrats of the period. The gentleman’s hat as portrayed by the Flemish painter Sir Anthony Van Dyck and the Dutch painter Frans Hals. The CAVALIER hat had the crown circled with jeweled necklace or a gem encrusted sil band. Although some Puritans are pictured wearing the Cavalier hat, the usual Puritan and Quaker hat was of the same high quality but without the plumes or ornate band and the brim worn straight

CHADOR – The traditional concealing garment worn by Moslem women in public was semicircular, and wrapped around the head

CHAPEAU (SHA PO) – French word for outdoor head covering. A chapeau has a crown and a brim


CHAPEL CAP – Circle or triangle or lace, formerly placed on the head when entering a Catholic church for services. It was carried in purse

CHAPERON – A hood, especially an ornamental or an official hood

CHAPERON (SHAP AH RON) (Middle Ages into Renaissance) – Pointed hood (long point known as liripipe) with short cape. The hood face opening was placed over the forehead as a headband and the cape gathered up and pleated in the form of a fan. The liripipe was twisted around the pleated cape to hold it in place (14th century). The petal scalloping or dagged or castellated edge was a variation (15th century). This was gradually sewn into place as a hat. The chaperon was made up over a stuffed roll or ROUNDLET. The liripipe eventually acquired great lengths

CHAPLET – Wreath or garland for the head

CHAPLET (CHAP LIT) – Circle of fresh flowers, later fashioned in gold and enamels in the Antiquity

CHARACTER HAT – Late 1970s rumpled tweed hat worn by New York senator Pat Moynihan

CHARLOTTE CORDAY (SHAR LOT COR DAY) – Version of MOB worn by Charlotte Corday during the French reign of terror in 1793. Tricolor band and rosette was the distinguishing feature

CHECHIA (SHE SHEE A) – Berber skullcap or TASHASHIT. Deep cylindrical, flat

CHEF’S HAT – White, starched bonnet with tall crown. French tradition states that a chef’s hat should have 100 pleats to represent the number of different ways in which a great chef can prepare eggs

CHIGNON CAP (SHEN YON) – A little cap worn over the bun or coil of hair at the back of the head. Various styles and fabrics

CHILD’S PUDDING – Hat with a strong brim (bumper) that acts as a shock absorber when the child is learning to walk and tumbles

CHIRA – Indian turban

CHOU (SHOO, FRENCH WORD FOR CABBAGE) – Rosette of tulle, lace, velvet, or ribbon used as ornament on hats in the late 19th century. In 1938, term used for a soft hat with crushed crown

CITY FLAT CAP – Beret, with small brim, made of wool, felt, or knitted of black woolen yarn (16th century). See STATUE CAP

CLAFT, KLAFT, HAT (COPTIC FOR HOOD) – Ancient Egyptian striped linen headdress. After Napoleon’s Egyptian campaign in 1798, the French Foreign Legion adopted the curtain like headdress for desert warfare

CLOCHE – Women’s hat of the 1920s. Close-fitting round crown, with no brim or a small flare at the brim edge

CLOCHE (KLOSH) (FRENCH WORD FOR BELL) – Soft style of the 1920s, fashioned from a hood of chiffon or handkerchief felt. Hat that covered the head to the neck in back; it came to the eyebrows in front. A flapper age, boyish style

COAL SCUTTLE BONNET (late 18th century, early 19th century) – Bonnet with flat back and a scoop brim that resembles a coal scuttle. Also POKE BONNET, CAPOTE

COALMAN HAT – A short visor cap with a protective flap at the back, derived from a hat worn by English coal deliverers to protect their backs from dust

COCKADE – Ornamental rosette of ribbon or cloth, worn on a hat as a badge of office or as a decoration

COCKED HAT – An old-fashioned three-cornered hat

COCKED HAT – Hat with large brim that turned up in various ways. Also BICORNE, TRICORNE, CAVALIER, CONTINENTAL, ANDROSMAN KEVENHULLER

COCKTAIL HAT – A small, often frivolous, hat for women, usually worn forward on the head

COIF – Head-cover worn by nuns as part of their habit, often with long veils

COIF – Tight-fitting cap worn under a veil

COIF – Men’s and women’s close fitting cap of uncertain origin (koif). Varying in style usually of soft cloth (medieval). Worn by the clergy, under crowns of the nobles, under the metal helmet. In the 16th century, worn under caps or the elaborate wigs. Through the 19th century, under wigs

COIFFURE – Hairstyle


CONE – Conically shaped hood of felt or straw used as a base for blocking small hat shapes or crowns

COOLIE HAT – A shallow conical straw hat with a large brim to protect wearer from the sun

COOLIE HAT – Straw hat, usually woven in one piece, with a downward slant from a peaked crown. Hats worn by Chinese coolies. A straw hat fashion in 1980. Sometimes styled in fabric

COONSKIN CAP – Daniel Boone hat, worn by American frontiersmen. Made from raccoon skins, with the tail hanging down in back

CORNO (12th century) – The doges of the Republic of Venice wore the tall, conical ducal bonnet. From the 13th century on the shaped cap it had the point rising from the upper back. Worn over the white linen coif. Last Doge of Venice (1797) was conquered by Napoleon

CORONET – Small crown worn by members of nobility as a symbol of rank

COSSACK – Adaptation of cap worn by Russian Cossacks. Usually of fur or felt. Hat wider at the top than at the head size. A style in the 1980s made up in Persian lamb and fur fabric for women. A winter hat for men worn at an angle with a center identation

COUVRE – Chef (Norman)

COVERCHIEF – Covering for the head

COWBOY HAT – See TEN GALLON. Hat with high crown and wide brim, originally worn by cow hands. Usually made of felt or leather

COWBOY HAT – Originally a felt hat worn by cattle herders. The 1980s “urban cowboys and cowgirls” were wearing straw and felt versions of this wide, rolled brim hat with high creased crown. Also STETSON

COWL – Hood or hooded robe worn especially by a monk

COWL OR CAPUCHON (MEDIEVAL) – Monk’s hood attached to a cloak

COXCOMB – A jester’s cap adorned with a strip of red

CRESPINE – Type of headdress for women consisting of wire mesh cylinders worn on either side of the head, used to confine the hair

CRESPINE, CRISPINE (GOTHIC) – A development in the RETICULATED HEADDRESS, consisting of the tight golden headband to which the CAULS were attached on the sides

CROWN – Head-dress usually made of gold and worn as a symbol of sovereignty by monarchs. Also see RASTAFARIAN

CROWN – The top part of a hat

CRUSH HAT – A collapsible opera hat

– D –


DEER STALKER – A hunting cap with visors at the front and back, and ear-flaps that can be tied up over the crown. Made famous by the fictional detective Sherlock Holmes

DEERSTALKER – Sportsman’s tweed or cloth, cap with visors in front and back, and earflaps outside and tied on top. Crown lined with scarlet poplin and reversible. As worn by deer hunters. Also SHERLOCK HOLMES CAP, FORE AND AFT, DUCKHUNTERS

DERBY – Another name for a BOWLER hat

DERBY (DER BI) (BRITISH, DAR BI) – In 1888, the 12th Earl of Derby visited the United States wearing a stiff, hard, brown felt hat that had dome

DESIGNER HATS – Sold with a designer label, they are not normally massed produced and have limited production runs. The materials used will be the same as those used in model hats, mostly hand sewn, these “prêt a porter” hats are blocked on metal pans. The hats in this category are bought by people who want to express their good taste and individuality. Often worn with everyday clothes, designer hats are usually of a high quality, smart and practical to wear. Sometimes sold on their name, but most often by the design appeal

DIADEM – A jeweled headband

DISCO HAT (late 1970s) – A small hat worn above the forehead and tilted to one side, held on by an elastic or ribbon band in back. The discotheque was a popular place to observe fashion trends

DOFF – The action of partially removing a hat by males as a sign of respect

DOLL HAT – Name given to small hats in various styles and materials. Usually worn forward and tilted above the right eye. In the 18th century England, a feminine version of the MACARONI. In 1930, a hat designed by Schiaparelli. Frank Olive brought out a version in 1979

DOMINO – A half mask worn over the eyes with a masquerade costume

DORMEUSE (FRENCH FOR “SLEEPER”) – In 1770s, a cap of shirred lawn worn at night, with plaited ribbon, held on by a ribbon tied on top of the head. For daytime wear, the DORMEUSE BONNET came in many designs

DOUBLE WHEAT – This straw is thick and coarse and although can be dyed to colour, is usually seen in its natural colour, golden brown. It is often used to make cheaper hats, it is hard wearing and if stiffened, hard to the touch, it has the smell of corn. This straw is easy to shape and difficult to sew

DUCKBILL – Bonnet having a long, high, curving visor. Usually tied on with ribbon under the chin. Worn by Marveluese of French Directoire Period (1795, dee rek twar). Also JOCKEY CAP, DIRECTOIRE BONNET

DUTCH CAP – Close fitting, pointed crown, cap with brim rolling up and flaring out at the sides. Dutch woman’s cap of lace or muslin. Also VOLENDAM CAP

– E –

EASTER BONNET – Women’s hat, a new spring style to be worn at Easter

EGYPTIAN CROWN – Illustration of the Egyptian Helmet Crown, from the portrait bust of Queen Nofretete, Dynasty XVII, c.1372

ENGLISH DRIVING CAP – Low-profile cap, originally only for men, with small brim at the front. Crown may be tailored with side panels or gored

ESCOFFIN (14th and 15th centuries) – Stuffed roll of various shapes. Originally a turban or heart shaped form, finally the two

ESPARTERIE – A flat sheet material used for the making of blocks and as a stiffening in the construction of hats

ETON (EE TON) – Cap worn by boys at Eton College, England

EUGENIE HAT (U SHAY NEE) – The EMPRESS HAT of 1859. Style of Empress Eugenie, wife of Napoleon III. A revival of this shape in 1931 was worn tilted over the right eye, and trimmed with ostrich feather. Style worn by Princess Diana in 1980

– F –

FACTORY HATS – Hats that people are most likely to see in hat shops, department stores and any other shops that sell hats. They can be offered at many different levels of quality and design, ranging from low to mid price levels. The hats are mostly massed produced, blocked on gas pans, sometimes made and trimmed with materials of a lower quality. The trims are often attached by glue gun as opposed to sewing. These hats are worn for many reasons, often worn by ladies that have an occasion to go to, but do not wear hats regularly. Other hats in this category are practical and sometimes casual. They offer good value for money to the occasional wearer. Price is an important factor to the customers of these hats

FEATHER HEAD-DRESS – Ceremonial and symbolic head-cover worn by chiefs of North American Indian tribes

FEDORA – A brimmed soft felt hat with a tapered crown that is dented lengthways. It comes originally from the Austrian Tyrol and is named after “Fedora”, a play by the French dramatist Victorien Sardou which was shown in Paris in 1882

FEDORA (FE DOE RA) – Men’s soft felt hat with brim and lengthwise crease in crown, adopted by women. The name Fedora was after the heroine of Victorian Sardou’s drama presented in Paris in 1882. Also TYROLEAN HAT, ALPINE HAT, HOMBURG

FELT – Cloth made from wool, fur or hair, compacted (felted) by rolling and pressing, in the presence of heat and moisture

FERRONIERE – Renaissance headdress of Oriental design that had a jewel in middle of forehead, suspended from a fine chain or ribbon that was tied around the head. Fashion revived at various times

FEZ – Brimless, conical, flat-topped cap with a tassel attached at the top center. Men’s head-cover, made of red felt, worn in Islamic cultures

FEZ – Red or black, felt cap that is shaped like a truncated cone and trimmed with a tassel. Turkish official dress from the early 19th century until outlawed in 1923. Still worn in other parts of the near East. Got its name from Fez, French Morocco, where juice of red berry, used for dye, grew in vicinity. Also CHECHIA, TARBOOSH

FILLET – A band for the hair

FILLET – Narrow strip of ribbon or similar material, often worn as a headband

FILLET – A band worn around the head that holds the hair in place. In the early 13th century, the fillet widens into a pillbox

FISH TAIL – Ribbon with a decorative v-shape cut at the end

FLAT CAP – Flat crowned, brimmed hat often worn over a biggin


FONTANGE (FON TAHNZH) – Style originated in 1678, when the elaborate headdress of Duchess de Fontange was disarranged during a royal hunt. She tied her curls up with a garter of ribbon and lace and created a fashion. She became mistress of Louis XIV. This high curled coiffure with ribbon loops later became the BONNET FONTAGE, with a lace peak in front and a small cap. Fashionable until 1714, when Lady Sandwich, while presented at the French Court, appeared in a simple low hair

FORAGE CAP – Military cap with a small brim

FORAGE CAP – Late 19th century American Army cap. See KEPI, copy of German cap

FRENCH HOOD (16th century) – Worn in various forms. The French Hood gradually replaced the Gable Hood. Smaller versions of the French Hood appeared in Holbein portraits (Lady Lee)

FRONTLET (15th century) – The CALOTTE had a black velvet or gold, rounded or V

FULLING – Tumbling and pounding of cloth in hot water to induce felting

FUR FELT – Any hood or capeline of felt made from fur fibers

– G –

GABLE HOOD – Name is derived from the four-sectioned shape of the hood which frames the face with what looks like a gable

GABLE OR DIAMOND SHAPED HOOD (16th century) – Hood with back curtain long. Front lappets down on either side or pinned up. Later versions showed back curtain divided and pinned up. Style associated with the reign of Henry VIII, as portrayed by court painter Holbein. Also PEDIMENTAL HOOD

GAINSBOROUGH HAT – A high crowned big brimmed hat decorated with feathers and ribbons became popular in the 1780s

GAINSBOROUGH OR MARLBOROUGH (18th century) – These two English portrait painters influenced feminine fashion. Hat had a low crown and wide brim that turned up at one side, trimmed with plumes and taffeta or velvet ribbon. Designed to cover elaborate headdress

GARBO HAT – Slouch hat. A soft, broad-brimmed hat

GARIBALDI PILLBOX (1860s) – The braid scrolled pillbox, inspired by the triumphs of the Italian liberator Garibaldi, was adopted by fashionable women in London

GAUCHO (GOW CHO) – Hat with wide tilted brim anchored with cord that tied under the chin. Worn by South American gauchos

GAUCHO HAT – A black felt hat with a wide flat brim and shallow flat-topped crown

GIBSON GIRL (1890s) – Sailor hat style shown in illustrations by American artist Charles Dana Gibson

GIBUS – Collapsible top hat. French, from the maker’s name

GIBUS (JY BUS) – Man’s collapsible silk opera hat. Patented in 1837 by French inventor Gibus

GLENGARRY – Highlander’s cap of thick-milled woolen cloth, generally rising to a point in front, with ribbons hanging down behind

GLENGARRY BONNET – Blue woolen cap creased through the crown, like today’s overseas cap. Appeared in 1805 in Glengarry, Invernesshire, Scotland. Cap has stiff sides and bound edges, finished with short ribbons hanging in back

GORGET (GOR JIT) (14th and 15h centuries) – Draped linen or silk cloth, covering neck and pinned to the hair plaits or chin strap. Also tucked into neckline of grown. Also GUIMP

– H –

HALF HAT – Any small hat that covers part of crown area

HAT – Item of dress worn on the head, from a word of Saxon origin meaning hood

HAVELOCK – Protective material that covers the neck and is attached to back of cap (Sir Henry Havelock, 1857).

HEAD (1770s) – Monstrous hair and hair covering styles worn during reign of Queen Marie Antoinette.

HEADRAIL (10th and 11th centuries) (BRITAIN) – Woman’s headdress, consisting of drapery wrapped over the head, around the neck and crossed over the shoulder

HEART SHAPED HEADDRESS (15th century) – The CAULS developed into wide horned headdresses. In time the horned formations gradually rose from a horizontal position to a vertical position. This created a heart shaped effect

HELMET – Protective or ceremonial head-cover, for soldiers

HENNIN – A high conical hat with a veil attached at the top, worn by women during the 15th century

HENNIN (15th century) – Term later applied derisively to all huge head coverings. The Oriental tiara headdress from the end of which floated a light veil. Long, usually pointed headdress brought to Europe by the Crusaders. Also LITTLE HENNIN, STEEPLE HEADDRESS (tall), BUTTERFLY

HIJAB – A covering for a Muslim woman’s head and face, sometimes reaching the ground, often accompanied by the niqab (face veil)

HOMBURG – A man’s hat, made of felt, with a narrow upturned brim and a depression in the top. First worn at Homburg, town in western Germany, usually trimmed with a band and bow

HOMBURG (HOM BURG) – From hat manufactured at Bad Homburg, Germany. Soft, elegant, felt hat with tapered, creased crown and rolled brim that had a bound edge. British version made popular by the Prince of Wales, later Edward VII of England from 1901 to 1910, who went to Germany for the spa. Popularity of the hat revived in the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s. Worn by British Prime Minister Anthony Eden. Dwight D. Eisenhower wore it for his inauguration as President of the United States in 1953

HOOD – Cone or capelin of felt or straw for making hats

HOOD – At first, hoods were fashioned from a coned shaped piece of fabric with the face hole cut out. Medieval hoods were attached to short capes

HOOD (20th century) – Nylon, cotton, insulated with goose down. Zippered front and tunneled draw cord gives wind tight fit to hood

HORNED HEADDRESS (late 14th century and 15th century)CAULS extended to great widths. They were supported with padded wires, and draped with veils that created a horned effect

HORSEHAIR – Hair from a horse’s mane or tail; a mass of such hairs; a fabric woven from horsehair

HUKE (RENAISSANCE) – Hooded mantle covering the head and body. From 11c., black clothe of Moorish design. Appeared in Europe (16c., 17c.) in Netherlands, Flanders, Germany Spain. Also HEUKE, HUIK HAIK, worn by Arabs, Moors, Mohammedans as an outer garment for centuries

– I –
No listing.

– J –

JOCKEY CAP – Cloth cap with close-fitting 6-panel crown and wide brim at the front

JULIET CAP – A round close-fitting skullcap worn by women. The style dates back to the Renaissance

JULIET CAP (RENAISSANCE) – Mesh cap decorated with jewels or pearls. A CALOTTE takes its name from cap worn by Juliet in Shakespeare’s tragedy “Romeo and Juliet”. Original story was published in 1476 in Naples

JUTE – This hood is woven with a natural material similar to thick string. It is loosely woven and naturally soft. It has to be varnished heavily in order to keep its shape after blocking. When made into a hat, it is light and cool to wear and allows air to pass easily through the weave. It can be dyed, but colors are pastel in shade

JUTE HOOD – Cone, capeline or sheet materiel made of jute fiber

– K –

KAFFIYEH, KEFFIYED (ARABIAN AND BEDOUIN) – The headdress scarf that is held in place by the AGAL

KALPAK – A triangular Turkish or Tatar felt cap


KATE GREENAWAY CAP – From illustrations in books written by Kate Greenaway (1846)

KEPI (KEP I) – Copy of German KOPPI, KEPI. Army cap adopted by French troops in Algiers. Cap with flat

KIPPA – Skull-cap worn by Jewish men. Also known as YARMULKE

KLAFT, KHAT (COPTIC FOR HOOD) – Ancient Egyptian striped lined headdress

KRIZIA – Lacquered woven straw hat. Round crown with rolled brim (1979). Also WEDDING RING

KUFIE – Islamic (Muslim) prayer cap

KULAH (PERSIAN) – Pointed skullcap. Ancient Oriental, high, cylindrical cap of lambskin or felt

KYRBASIA (ANCIENT BASHLYK) – Persian or Median cap of felt, round, with flaps, which could be fastened under chin or with no flaps and a hanging cord

– L –

LEGHORN (LEG HORN OR LEG EN) – Finely plaited straw hat exported from Laverne, Italy

LEURING LATHE – Turntable with a block to support a felt hat. The hat is placed on the block and, as it turns, it is polished or “leured” with a plush or velveteen pad, to impart a shine to the felt fibers, particularly on the crown

LIBERTY CAPPhrygian cap

LIBERTY CAP – Close fitting, red woolen cap with elongated crown on which the tip folds over. Style called “bonnet rouge”, inspired by French Revolutionists (1792)

LIRIPIPE – Long scarf or cord attached to and hanging from a hood

LIRIPIPE (LIRA I PIPE) – Style evolved from the long point on the conical hood with face hole (12th century). This peak was later wrapped around the head to form turbaned CHAPERON in 14th century

– M –

MACARONI – Small tricorn worn perched above a high wig. Style adopted by fashion extremists of the Macaroni Club (London, 1760), who were Italian

MAD HATTER – Famous character of Lewis Carroll’s “Alice in Wonderland”. Also see MERCURY

MANDEL – A turban woven with silk and gold

MANTILLA (MAN TEE YA, MAN TIL A) – French 18th century Chantilly lace, replaced Moorish head scarf, black or white (blonde). Shawlike 19th century national Spanish or Mexican headdress of lace worn with a high comb

MANTLE (MIDDLE AGES) – Woman’s head covering in any Catholic religious assembly. Evolved into HEADRAIL, HEADTIRE, WIMPLE. Also PALLA. Until 12th century

MARIE STUART COIFS AND CAPS – Small wired FRENCH HOOD that dips in front to give a heart

MATADOR HAT (ALSO BULLFIGHTER HAT) – Shape is a copy of a bull’s head with short stubby horns. Broad decorated piece on crown represents bull’s eye (Ancient Cretan symbol)

MERCURY POISONING – Mercury is acutely hazardous as a vapor and in the form of its water-soluble salts, which corrode membranes of the body. Chronic mercury poisoning occurs when small amounts of the metal or its fat-soluble salts, particularly methyl mercury, are repeatedly ingested over long periods of time. It causes loss of memory, irreversible brain, liver and kidney damage, paralysis, mental derangement and eventually death. In the United States it was referred to as the Danbury shakes. Because of increasing water pollution, significant quantities of mercury have been found in some species of fish, which has aroused concern regarding uncontrolled discharge of the metal into the environment

MERCURY USAGE – Mercury Nitrate was used to soften the thicker and coarser fur (guard hair) from a rabbit or hare. This was to make the finished felt hood as soft and fine as possible, before it was made into a hat for the obvious reason that it would be of a higher quality and price

MERRY WIDOW HAT (early 20th century) – Fashion named for opereta “Merry Widow” by Franz Lehar. Large hat with wide brim, decorated with “willow” plumes and flowers

MILKMAID HAT (18th century) – “Country” fashion, garden hat with a low crown and wide brim, worn over a lingerie cap. Hat tied down with ribbon under chin. Fashion of fine straw, leghorn or horsehair. Also BERGERE, SHEPHERDESS, GYPSY, SKIMMER

MILLINER – Artisan who makes and sells hats

MILLINERY – The craft of making hats

MITER, MITRE (MY TER) – Modern headdress of Catholic church dignitaries. A tall conical cap with ties or lappets hanging in back. Cap has two peaks, which fold flat against each other. Evolved from Ancient Eastern mitra.

MITRE – A high, pointed headdress, cleft crosswise on top and with two ribbons hanging from the back. The right to wear the mitre belongs by law only to the pope, the cardinals and the bishops. Others require for its use a special papal privilege. For a full description and history, for more information see this site http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/10404a.htm

MOBCAP – Worn both indoors and outdoors in the 18th century. Lace cap, also linen, net, lawn. Large ribbon bow in center of cap. Took many forms, from a small lace cap to a towering MOB

MODEL MILLINERY – The creation of “one off” designs. The shape of the hat will be molded on wooden blocks and most of the sewing will be by hand. Materials used should be of the highest quality. Most often the hat will be made by a milliner for one customer and sometimes with a particular occasion in mind. Model millinery could be considered to be the “haute couture” of hat making. Many of the designs are extravagant, frivolous and always expensive

MONMOUTH (17th century) – Originally mad in “capper’s town” Monmouth, England. Knitted woolen cap with turned up band. Stocking cap is the modern version

MONOCLEMONTERO (MON TAR O, MON TAY RO) – Spanish word for huntsman or horsemen. A round hat

MONTGOMERY BERET (MONT GUM ER I, MON GUM RI) – British type of beret worn by Sir Bernard L. Montgomery in the World War II. Dark blue felt with insignia

MORTAR BOARD – Consists of close

MORTARBOARD – Flat, square head-cover worn by professors and students for solemn academic occasions

MUSHROOM HAT – Hat with shallow crown and downward curved brim. Shape resembles a mushroom (20th century)

– N –

NAP – Short fibers extending above the surface of cloth, fabric or felt, creating a soft, downy effect such as on velvet


NEWSBOY CAP – Soft fabric cap with full crown and visor that snaps to crown. Cap worn by children around 1920, who were also newsboys. Also CARNABY, style revived in 1970s. Adapted for women’s wear in 1980s

NIGHT CAP – Men’s cap worn informally indoors from the 16th to the 19th century. The cap had a deep crown made of four segments, with the edge turned up to form a close brim

NIQAB – Face veil worn by Islamic women, together with the hijab (head-cover)

– O –

OPTIMO – Straw (Panama or other) hat with full crown that has a ridge extending from front to back

OVERSEAS CAP – Olive drab cloth cap worn by soldiers in the World War I and II. A 1979 fashion in wool that includes a cuff. A popular shape in 1981

– P –

PADRE – Hat with a low crown and a broad, straight brim that has a slight curve a outer edge. Adapted from the hats that priests and missionaries wore. In 1978, Adri designed felt and straw. Popular style in the 1980s both felt and straw. Also PARSON’S HAT

PALLA (TERM FROM ROMAN OCCUPATION) – Medieval European head drapery that evolved from headrail

PANAMA – The name given to straw woven in Ecuador, as well as Peru and Colombia

PANAMA – Very cool to wear, resilient to crushing and often used for men’s hats, Panama straw comes from Ecuador. In recent years, Chinese bleached palm fibre is increasingly used to emulate the original. Normally a bleached finish, but it can be dyed to pastel colors

PANAMA – Hand woven straw hat from leaves of the jipijapa (he pi ha pa) plant that grows in Central and South America. Taken its name from Panama, where it is sold

PANAMA HAT – Hat made with panama straw

PAPER PANAMA – Cone or capeline made of Japanese Toyo paper, woven to imitate natural Panama. It can be 1×1 or 2×2 weave

PAPER PANAMA – This straw is woven from Japanese Toyo paper. Normally seen in cream or white although sometimes dyed. Sold as a simple blocked shape this straw can be rolled and packed without damage, ideal for use as a sun or holiday hat

PARASISAL – A two over two weave of sisal fiber used to make cones and capelines. Available in 5 grades, depending on the fineness of the fiber. It is lightweight, resilient and takes dye well

PARASISAL – A fine, high quality natural straw made from sisal, bleached or dyed to colour, comes in grades from one through to five. Normally reserved for expensive hats. Delicate in texture but resilient in wear, takes dye well. Parasisal is made using two over two weave

PEAK – Visor

PETASOS – A broad-brimmed low-crowned hat worn by ancient Greeks and Romans (for example, the winged hat of Hermes)

PETASOS (PET A SOS, PETASUS PET A SUS) – Earliest hats of felt or straw, with brims that curved upward or downward. Introduced into pre

PHRYGIAN BONNET (FRIJ I AN) – Ancient (Oriental) cone

PHRYGIAN CAP – Conical cap with the top bent forward, named for an ancient people of Asia Minor. Worn as a symbol during the French Revolution, it is now also known as the cap of liberty

PICTURE HAT – A hat with a very wide brim

PILE – Nap

PILEUS (PY LEE US, ROMAN, OF PILOS GREEK) – A close fitting cap of felt or leather or wool, similar to skullcap. Common to Ancient people. During the Renaissance, the cap evolved into BIRETTA


PILLBOX – A small brimless cap with a flat tip and cylindrical side. Polo players in the Bois de Boulogne wore pillboxes tied under their chins in the early 1900s. This hat became popular when Jackie Kennedy wore them. Clothes designer Halston reinvented the pillbox worn by Greta Garbo in the 1932 film “As You Desire Me”, especially for Mrs Kennedy. Pillboxes can be made in most types of fabric

PILLBOX – Small cap that has a flat crown with straight sides. In Medieval times developed from a FILLET. Fashion made popular in 1960s by Jackie Kennedy. Also GARIBALDI PILLBOX

PITH HELMET – Helmet of cork or pith (dried spongy tissue from the sola plant), covered with cloth

PITH HELMET (19th century) – Helmet

PLANKING – Rolling and heating the hoods to complete the felting process

PLANTERS HAT – Worn by sugar planters of Jamaica. Various weaves. Style of hat worn by golfer J. C. Snead in 1980s


PLUSH – (Hatters Plush) Cloth of silk or cotton, with a longer and softer nap than velvet

PLUSH HATS – Men’s hat, usually Top Hats of plush, an imitation of napped beaver hats

POKE BONNET – By 1800, coiffures were “smaller heads” and bonnets were replacing the huge MOBS and CALASH styles. The poke shaped bonnet with rounded front brim had a small crown. The bonnet came in various shapes and fabrics.

POM-POM – Pompon a fluffy or woolly ball, tuft, or tassel

POMPON – Pompon a fluffy or woolly ball, tuft or tassel

PORK PIE (1930s) – A new shape in men’s hats had a low crown with telescoped flat top. First shown in felt, then straw. Adapted for women

POSTILION HAT (POCE TILL YON) – Also called the REMBRANDT or REUBENS, from the great painters of the 17th century. Revivals of the style in the 18th and 19th centuries. The post riders of the early 19th century, traveling coaches wore a high hat with tapering crown

POUNCING – Rubbing down the outside of felt hats with pumice stone, sand paper or emery paper to produce a very smooth surface

PROFILE HAT – Hat that is worn tilted to one side to show profile

PUGGAREE (PUG REE) OR PUGGREE – From pagri, East Indian word for a turban or scarf that is worn as protection against the sun. Now the pleated scarf worn as a band on a straw or felt hat

PURITAN – Black felt hat with high conical crown and narrow straight brim, worn by the Puritans during the 17th century. It was usually trimmed with a buckle at the front.

PURITAN HAT – High, flat


– Q –

QUAKER HAT (17th century) – Men’s high quality, broad brimmed hat of felt or beaver, worn cocker or rolled. Colors were gray or brown

QUAKER BONNET – Quaker women wore very high quality, simplified versions of the prevailing fashion. Black hood replaced by the beaver hat of the 18th century, then the POKE BONNET in the 19th century, in which the crown was gathered not pleated


– R –

RAFFIA – A natural straw from Madagascar, the Raffia palm or its leaf-bast. Available in cones, capelines, braids and hanks

RAFFIA – This straw from Madagascar is widely use for the production of budget hats. Heavy to look at it is a casual straw and much used for beach hats

RAISING CARD – Small wired instrument to raise nap on felt

RANELAGH MOB (18th century) – A form of mob cap adapted from the style worn by market women

RASTAFARIAN HAT – The Rastafarian hat is called a “crown” and has religious significance. The knitted version is usually colored red, yellow and green, the colour of the Ethiopian flag

RETICULATED HEADDRESS (14th and 15th centuries) – Style consisting of braided coils of hair worn over each ear, covered with CAULS or nets of fine gold or silver wire strung with jewels or pearls. Later a CRESPINE or band was added. Many forms evolved, based on the position of the braids or buns

ROBIN HOOD HAT (12th century) – The English hero and outlaw Robin Hood was portrayed wearing the conical hood with self brim that was turned up at the back and worn down to a point in front. Hat was trimmed with a long quill

ROUGH RIDER HAT – Khaki felt soldier hat of Spanish American War of 1898

ROUNDLET (14th and 15h centuries) – Stuffed roll of velvet, worn turban fashion over a close fitting cap that covered all the hair

ROYAL ASCOT – The world famous English horse race meeting at Ascot, dating from the early 18th century, is particularly renowned for Ladies’ Day, a unique occasion and setting to flaunt the most spectacular hats

RUEBBENS OR REMBRANDT HAT (17th century) – Large felt hat decorated with feathers or flowers. Hat made fashionable from portraits of the period. Self portrait by Rubens with Isabella Brant is an example of Dutch costume. Isabella wears a mannish hat of straw over a lace cap

RUSH – Capeline made of a stiff thick straw, usually left its natural green colour

RUSH – A stiff thick straw with a green coloring, normally left in its natural form, again cool to look at and wear. Smells of cut grass.


– S –


SHAKO – A tall, nearly cylindrical military cap with a plume, flat-topped


SHERHERDESS (18th century) – Shallow crowned hat with wide brim that dips in front and back. Made of fine straw (Leghorn). Also CHURCHILLS, GYPSY

SILK HAT (18th century, 19th century) – Black hat of silk plush, with a high, cylindrical shaped crown and a stiff rolled edge brim. As the beaver supply decreased, the SILKER became popular. Also OPERA HAT, TOPPER, GIBUS

SINAMAY – A plant grown in the Philippines the fibers are woven into sheet or hood forms

SINAMAY – Comes in two forms, flat sheet and loosely woven hoods, made from Abaca fibre (Musa textilis). Both types need stiffening before it can be blocked. Sheet sinamay hats are made from a number of layers and are blocked using the same method as fabric covered hats. Woven hoods are blocked using traditional metal pans

SINGLE WHEAT – Very similar to double wheat, made from the same basic straw, but the strands are flatter. Also used for cheaper hats and dyed to colour. Both single and double wheat straws are natural

SISAL – Comes from the fiber of the ABACCA (Musa textilis) and is used to make cones, capelines and woven fabric

SISAL – The same as above but using a one over one weave, less popular than parasisal and just a little coarser

SISAL HOOD – Cone or capeline of sisal fiber made with a one over one weave


SKULL CAP – Close fitting cap, worn on the back of the head. BEANIE (American), CALOTTE (French), YARMULKES (male Jew)

SKULL-CAP – Small, close-fitting cap of fabric

SLOUCH CAP – Soft felt hat with broad flexible brim in various shapings. Also CIVIL WAR OFFICER’S HAT, HUNGARIAN HAT (made popular in 1853 by Louis Kossuth), GARBO, FEDORA

SLOUCH HAT – A soft hat with a high crown and drooping flexible brim. Also called a GARBO HAT, from the name of the actress who worn this style in many films

SMOKING CAP – Men’s pillbox shape cap, worn during the 19th century to prevent the hair from smelling of tobacco

SNAP BRIM – A brim that turns down sparingly

SNAP BRIM – Brim turns down in front and up in back. Mad of felt, straw or fabric. Worn tilted slightly over the right eye

SNOOD – A band for the hair, once worn by unmarried women in Scotland as the badge of virginity; an ornamental hairnet supporting the back of a woman’s hair

SNOOD – A net or fabric bag pinned or tied on at the back of a woman’s head for holding the hair

SNOOD – In Medieval times, the support that holds or covers the hair was called a CAUL. In the 19th century, the support was called a net, sometimes SNOOD and consisted of a net

SOLANO – A sunhat; a wide brimmed flat crowned straw hat worn for sun protection

SOMBRERO – Mexican hat with high, conical crown and very wide brim. Usually of straw or felt

SOMBRERO (SOM BRAY RO) – Spanish word meaning hat. The high crown keeps the head cool and the broad brim protects the wearer from the sun or rain. The peon’s sombrero is mad of straw, the gentleman’s of felt. Also COWBOY HAT, TEN-GALLON HAT

SOUTHWESTER (SOU WEE TER) – Originally waterproof hat of oiled canvas. Then rubberizes by the Mackintosh process. Now the hat is usually plastic coated. Originally worn by sailors as protection against the weather. The brim is broader in back to protect the neck in stormy weather

SPANIS TOQUE (mid 16th century) – The crown of the beret took on height when worn over a wired frame. The brim was narrow and the hat had a jeweled band and feathers


ST. CATHERINE OF ALEXANDRIA – Patron saint of milliners in France, celebrated 2 November

ST. CLEMENT I – Third Bishop of Rome, +c.100 A.D. Patron saint of hatters in England, celebrated 23 November. By tradition, the discoverer of felt

STATUE CAP – A statue, passed in England in 1571, to encourage the wool workers, made wearing this cap compulsory for the common men

STIFFENING – Originally gum Arabic, mucilage, shellac or gelatin, now superseded by cellulose or pva based chemicals. It is applied by hand or dipped to stiffen felt or straw

STOCKING CAP – Knitted cap, usually conical, often finished with a pompom

STOCKING CAP – Knit cap with long tapering end (liripipr), usually finished with a pompom or tassel

STOVEPIPE HAT – A tall 19th century top hat, made popular by US President Abraham Lincoln

STOVEPIPE HAT (late 18th century) – Hat of felt, napped with beaver, with tall rounded crown and rolled small brim. Evolved into high silk hat

SUEDE FELT – Fur felt hood or capeline with short nap, surface texture resembles suede

SUGAR LOAF (14th and 15th centuries) – Tall hat with curved crown that resembles the loaf shape into which refined sugar was made

SUNBONNET – A bonnet for women and girls that has a large stiff brim and a flap at the back for protection from the sun

– T –

TAJ – Persian and Arabic for crown. A brimless, tall, cone shaped cap of distinction

TAM O’ SHANTER – A variation of the Scottish bonnet named after a character in the poem by Robert Burns. Cap was made of heavy brushed wool with a center tassel

TAM O’SHANTER – Beret with close-fitting headband, usually trimmed with a pompon

TANAGRA – Straw hat with a tall conical crown from the 4th and 3rd centuries, B.C. Greece. Example from terra cotta statuette of a woman from Boeotion town of Tanagra. Also PETASOS, THOLIA

TARBOOSH – Arabic for cap. Brimless felt or cloth skullcap, worn by both men and women of the Mohammedan faith. Usually red, sometimes has a scarf draped around it or covered with a veil. Larger than a FEZ


TEN-GALLON HAT – See COWBOY HAT. A good description of this hat supplied courtesy of www.clearwaterhats.com. The phrase “ten-gallon hat” is a bit of folksy humor that is often carried out through exaggeration. The 1880s saw the crowns of hats get taller and larger, but by the 1920s even those hats seemed smaller by comparison. The movies were coming in to great vogue in the 20s, and on-screen stars wanted to appear larger than life. As in most things, the rest of the people followed their lead to enormous hats. Hence the epithet “ten-gallon hat” to show its size could hold ten gallons of water. Like all folklore, no one knows who originated the phrase, but it stuck. The Stetson Company put out an advertising poster showing a cowboy watering his horse out of his hat. The phrase plays upon that, or the poster plays upon the phrase. That would be easy to figure by dating the poster. Or almost proverbial is the ten-gallon hat worn by Americans in the “Old West”, particularly so in Texas. Its description is taken to refer to its enormous size, which would conform with all the other Texan superlatives. The implication, of course, is that the hat was so large that it could be filled with ten gallons of liquid. This is an error due to a linguistic “mix-up”. In this case the gallon is not the unit of capacity, but the Spanish “galon” for “braid”. The hat is not Texan at all, but stems from Mexico. When Spaniards occupied the country, they wore sombreros because the wide brims protected their faces from the burning sun. Spaniards’ love of beauty made them embellish this utilitarian brim with braid. The more of it they used, the happier they were. Some men thus wore a hat with ten different braids. Very accurately and without exaggeration, it was a “ten galon hat”. When the Americans adopted the Spanish head covering, they acquired its Spanish name as well. Continuing to call it a ten gal(l)on hat, the Spanish (“galon”) braid was soon misunderstand and mistaken for the liquid measure. This created the ten-gallon hat. Source: “Websters World Encyclopedia”

THERESE (late 16th century) – Large hood of gauze over a frame of wire or whale bone. Also CALASH

TIARA (TEE AR A) – Greek origin, crown. Woman’s crown

TIP – The top part of the crown

TOONGABBIE (1960) – A washable toweling hat, mad of cotton terry cloth

TOP HAT – Man’s tall cylindrical hat with a narrow brim, made of silk plush. Also see ABRAHAM LINCOLN. Very early top hats were made of beaver felt. Also called a PLUG HAT in the USA

TOP HAT – Worn for formal occasions with tail coat. Tall cylindrical crown in various heights. Late 19th century, changed from beaver to silk hat. Also TOPPER, SILKER

TOPEE, TOPI – Hindu, hat worn in India and other tropical countries as protection from the sun. See PITH HELMET

TOPKNOT – An ornament as a knot of ribbons or a pompom forming a headdress or worn as part of a coiffure

TOQUE – French term for a chef’s tall white hat

TOQUE – Small hat for a woman, close-fitting brimless or nearly brimless hat

TOQUE (TOKE) – Small brimless hat or cap full crown and draped of decorated with puffs, lace. Can be decorated with feathers or veiling. Formerly a 16th century small hat, full crown, feather. Some versions have a small brim. Queen Mary of England (20th century) favored this style. At the inauguration of President Reagan in 1981, Nancy Reagan wore a red, braided toque that matched her coat

TOREADOR HAT – Bicorne shape, set crosswise on the head

TOY – A linen or wool headdress once worn by old women of the lower Scottish classes

TRICORNE – Men’s hat of the 18th century; wide brims were folded up to form three points

TRICORNE – Three cornered hat with upturned wide brim. As the Cavalier hat grew larger and the brim began to droop, fashion led to “cocking” the brim up on one side. Last half of the 17th century, the hat was cocked on three sides, thus becoming the TRICORNE

TRILBY – The Trilby is a soft felt hat, usually made of fur felt (rabbit). It has a dented crown and flexible brim, the shape originates from the Austrian Tyrol. It usually had a small feather trimming. The hat became most popular between the 1930s and the 1940s, when Schiaparelly used it to compliment clothes design. The name come from the heroine of G. du Maurier’s novel “Trilby” (1894), in which the heroine of the stage version wore such a hat

TRUNCATED TIARA – Ancient Babylonian and Assyrian hat of wool or felt with short lappets

TUDOR BERET, RENAISSANCE BERET – From the 1539 painting of Henry VIII portrait by Holbein. Hat of velvet with jewel and feather

TUQUE – A Canadian cap made by tucking in one tapered end of a long cylindrical bag, closed at both ends

TUQUE (TUKE) – Winter knitted hat, tapered and closed at both end. Worn with one end tucked into the other. Seen at Canadian winter sporting events

TURBAN – Typical head-dress for Muslim and Sikh men, constructed by winding a long scarf around the head

TURBAN – Women’s head-dress resembling men’s turbans

TURBAN – Ancient Oriental headdress, consisting of long pieces of cloth rolled and formed over a cap. Periodically the fashion is revived in various forms, especially when European culture is exposed to the Orient. The Moors in Spain, the returning Crusaders in the 11th century

TUTULUS – Etruscan

– U –

No listing

– V –

VAGABOND HAT – Casual hat, has Dobbs trademark

VANITIES – A 15th century British term for hats

VEIL – A covering of fine fabric or net, for the head, face or both, for protection, concealment, adornment or ceremonial purpose, especially the white transparent one often worn by a bride

VELOUR FELT – Fur felt hood or capeline with uniform nap and velvet-like surface texture

VISCA – Cone or capeline of rayon fiber, made to look like parrasisal with a 1×1 or 2×2 weave

VISCA – Visca originates from Japan, it is one of the few man made straw materials to be used for the weaving of hoods. It is often used for mass production hats, as it is easily dyed and blocked, similar in appearance to parasisal, but it is coarser. This straw softens easily and does not like to be mistreated; normally considered as a one season hat

VISOR – A partial brim, usually extending out at the front of a hat or cap. Also known as a peak used as a shade against the sun


VULTURE HEADDRESS – Ancient Egyptian

– W –

WATCH CAP – Knitted cap, navy blue, such as worn by sailors. Cap rolls down to keep forehead and neck warm. Formerly in worsted wool, now in synthetic fibers

WATTEAU (18th century) – Following the tall FONTANGE, the small cap appeared. The French painter and engraver Watteau showed the small hat in his illustrations, thereby setting a fashion. The hat was worn tipped forward to accommodate the high back hairstyles

WEDDING RING (1979) – Frank Olive’s round

WHEAT STRAW SINGLE OR DOUBLE – A stiff coarse straw, usually left its natural golden brown colour. Single wheat is 1×1 weave double wheat is 2×2 weave

WIDOW’S PEAK – A close-fitting cap with a point extending down at the center of the forehead. Originally worn as a mourning bonnet by Caterina de Medici. Also a point of hair over the forehead, like the cusped front of the widow’s cap formerly worn

WILLOW – A woven and sized material made of esparto grass and cotton, used for making the base of fashion hats. Also known as esparterie and spartre

WIMPLE – A veil folded so as to cover the head and neck and closely frame the cheeks, a fashion of the Middle Ages that remained part of a nun’s dress

WIMPLE (late 12th, 13th and 14th centuries) – The veil evolved into the wimple, a cloth draped across the throat, cheeks and chin, leaving the face exposed. The illustration shows a wimple worn with a headveil. Certain orders of nuns still wear the wimple. In he 14th century, the cloth wimple worn without a veil, pinned over coils of hair on either side of the head was known as a GORGET. In 1938, a toque of Persian lamb, with black georgette wimple

WITCH HAT – At the time of the persecution of witches in England, the costume of the times included the steeple hennin. This was remained as a symbol of the garb of witches

– X –

XIAN – Capeline made of an oriental straw

XIAN – This is a very popular straw and comes in a number of forms, including natural, skin of xian, twisted xian (or seagrass) and bleached. Often associated with beach or holiday hats, this useful straw can also be stiffened and be used in the production of mid quality hats. In its natural condition it is soft and has an irregular light brown colour with a smell of paper, a natural straw.

– Y –

YARMULKE – The skullcap worn by Jewish males, especially during prayers or ceremonial occasions. Also known as kippah

YARMULKE – Skullcap worn by male Jews. Orthodox Jews wear the skullcap everyday. Cap consists of four or six pie

– Z –


ZUCCHETTO – Skull-cap worn by the Roman Catholic clergy; black for priests, purple for bishops, red for cardinals, white for the pope